Sun Rings (2002)
Composed by Terry Riley
for string quartet, chorus and pre-recorded spacescapes
1. Sun Rings Overture
2. Hero Danger
4. Planet Elf Sindoori
5. Earth Whistlers
6. Earth/Jupiter Kiss
7. The Electron Cyclotron Frequency Parlour
8. Prayer Central
9. Venus Upstream
10. One Earth, One People, One Love
Sun Rings runs approximately one hour and thirty minutes with no intermission.
About Sun Rings, Terry Riley writes:
The ten “spacescapes” that comprise Sun Rings were begun in August of 2001 and finished in July of 2002. They were written as separate musical atmospheres with the intention to let the sounds of space influence the string quartet writing and then to let there be an interplay between live “string” and recorded “space” sound.
In some movements, the intention was to place the quartet in such a way that it felt like they were traveling through spatial atmospheres, as a symbolic representation of the wanderings of space probes Voyager and Galileo as they moved through what must have been the incredible atmospheres of our solar system. In some cases, fragments of melody that I observed in these sounds became the basis for themes that were developed in the quartet writing. The addition of the two movements with the choirs was to further emphasize that this work is largely about humans as they reach out from earth to gain an awareness of their solar system neighborhood.
When Dr. Donald Gurnett handed me these original NASA recordings, which were to be the point of departure for this challenging adventure, my thoughts became filled with images stimulated by locales as distant as Jupiter and Uranus. I could almost feel myself propelled through space as one atmosphere gave way to another.
Space is surely the realm of dreams and imagination and a fertile feeding ground for poets and musicians. Ancient astrologers were aware of the significant influences of planetary movements on our lives. I feel these influences are somehow responsible for this amazing collaboration which has been so enthusiastically undertaken by all the participants responsible for its outcome.
Do the stars welcome us into their realms? I think so or we would not have made it this far. Do they wish us to come in peace? I am sure of it. If only we let the stars mirror back to us the big picture of the universe and the tiny precious speck of it we inhabit that we call Earth, maybe we will be given the humility and insight to love and appreciate all life and living forms wherever our journeys take us.
I dedicate Sun Rings to Dr. Donald Gurnett, whose brilliant mind has wandered the solar system and beyond for a lifetime, who inspired and launched all of us Sun Rings collaborators with his twinkle and the depth of his understanding, and who generously shared with us some of the Universe’s secrets.
Terry Riley, August 2002
About Sun Rings, Willie Williams writes:
Overwhelming as it was to be given the NASA archive as a starting point for a visual piece, it was clear to me that the performance environment for Sun Rings had to be more than just a planetarium experience or a physics lecture. The spectacular photographs from Hubble and Voyager have become so very well known that I was keen to find something less discovered, less familiar, so often what we are seeing during the performance is an abstraction based more loosely on the mood of the composition as a whole.
Nevertheless, an amount of space imagery was naturally going to make up part of the design and spending time with Don Gurnett at the University of Iowa led me to sources of rare moving footage sent back to earth from spacecraft via a 1970s version of digital video. Next to the imagined visions of space that we have seen in science fiction movies the raw images are extremely rough in quality, but their authenticity conveys enormous emotional power.
Further inspiration for the visuals came quite directly from the Voyager missions. I discovered that there is informational material on board the spacecraft called “The Golden Record,” which is addressed for the attention of anyone they happen to run into along the way. The extraordinary optimism of providing such material is only outweighed by the confidence of including diagrammatic instructions for said aliens as to how to playback videotape and vinyl recordings. The information package includes drawings of what human beings are and where our planet is located. Along with this there are photographs of everyday scenes from around the world—people, houses, roads, cars, animals, musical instruments—presenting the world as it was in 1977. (Several of the actual images from the Golden Record appear in the final movement of Sun Rings.) The two Voyagers have now traveled far beyond our solar system, so I began to think of them as eccentric emissaries from our world, carrying information about us into deep space, not knowing that they have already become an anachronism; like senior citizens carrying school photographs of their grandchildren unaware that those they hold so dear have already grown up and changed beyond recognition.
I’ve had a life long fascination with astronomy, both in the very practical sense of spending nights stargazing and in a more personal sense, building my own picture of a relationship between cosmology and theology. Facing the enormity of the universe produces emotions that range from comforting awe to hopeless insignificance and Terry Riley’s composition speaks to both these extremes. The nature of the subject matter always indicated that Sun Rings would be a contemplative work, but combined with Terry’s response to 9/11, the piece walks the line between supplication and mourning, perhaps even verging on despair, whilst somewhere in space there is a permanent memory of more comfortable, more innocent times.
Willie Williams, August 2002
Program note by Blake Marie Bullock
Shattering the confines of the familiar and comfortable, pursuing an innovative idea alone, and sometimes in darkness, the explorer leaves the world we know behind in search of new sounds, sights and discoveries. This spirit thrives in both space exploration and the works of the Kronos Quartet, Terry Riley and Willie Williams, and they merge on stage in Sun Rings.
The NASA Art Program contacted Kronos in spring 2000 with an open invitation to take sounds of space and weave them into music. The sounds of space came from plasma wave receivers built by physicist Don Gurnett and flown on a variety of Earth orbiting and planetary spacecraft over a period of 40 years.
Listening for the first time to these eerie whistles, sirens and booms collected from hundreds of millions of miles away, Kronos Artistic Director David Harrington recalls they “sounded like part of nature, but not like any sounds I had ever heard before.”
Harrington knew right away that the composer to best bring these sounds into the work of Kronos would be longtime collaborator Terry Riley. When it came time for Riley to hear the sounds first-hand, Harrington says, “I wanted to see the expression on his face.” He soon realized they were about to embark upon a fascinating project, one unlike anything they had done before.
Among the sounds that Harrington and Riley listened to from Gurnett’s collection were those from the plasma wave receivers on the twin Voyager spacecraft which carried out the historic twelve-year exploration of the outer planets: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Many are familiar with the breathtaking pictures of Jupiter’s moons and Saturn’s rings taken by Voyager; however, the plasma wave sounds, and even the existence of such sounds, are not widely known.
It is common to think of space as a silent black vacuum. Since sound waves need air in order to propagate and there is no air in space, it seems to make sense that space is totally soundless. However, the space around and between the planets is not a total vacuum; it is filled with an ionized gas called a plasma—a gas so hot that its individual atoms are separated into their constituent electrically charged particles. The “plasma waves” that can propagate in this medium have characteristics similar to both sound waves and radio waves.
Although a sensitive microphone could in principle be used to detect these waves, the best way is to use an electrical antenna and a simple radio receiver. Reflecting on his early pioneering work, Gurnett says, “When we first launched a plasma wave receiver into Earth orbit in 1962 we were astonished to find that space was filled with such a rich variety of fascinating sounds.”
“What really got me going was when I met with Professor Gurnett and he told me about how he developed these devices and what these sounds actually were,” says composer Terry Riley. “It gave me a very visceral feeling. I started to look at space a little differently.”
A variety of phenomena in space can be detected via the plasma waves they make: whistling sounds made by lightning; bird-like sounds called chorus that are spontaneously produced by electrons trapped in the magnetic fields that surround planets such as Earth and Jupiter; whistling sounds from the charged particles that cause the Northern Lights; and at Jupiter, a roaring boom from a turbulent shock wave that forms upstream of the planet in the high-velocity plasma streaming away from the Sun called the solar wind, somewhat analogous to a sonic boom from an airplane.
The plasma waves recorded by Prof. Gurnett were not adjusted to accommodate our musical taste or the limited capability of our ears—the sounds represent the true frequency at which the signals were detected in space. This means that theoretically, if humans could somehow live out where these space probes were, and if we had sensitive enough ears, we could hear these very sounds. Luckily, we have spacecraft to go where no human ear ever has gone.
Visual designer Willie Williams reflects, “It was an arresting experience to hear the vast range of audio material collected from the different spacecraft.” He describes the noises as “ranging from piercing, strident white noise to the beautiful birdsong-like sounds of Chorus.”
He was also touched upon learning what else, besides the instruments, was included on the spacecraft. “When exploring the Voyager archive I discovered that there is a package of informational material on board in case the craft is discovered by alien life forms some time in the distant future. There are drawings and pictures of what human beings are and where we live, plus everyday scenes from around the world. Naturally these images were collected prior to the Voyager launches so they describe a world in a very different mood to our own. They seem so innocent and optimistic, especially when contrasted with images from the present day.”
Of course, the world has changed dramatically since the launch of the Voyager spacecraft in 1977. Riley’s work on Sun Rings took a definitive turn after the unforgettable attacks of September 11, 2001.
“I saw how the country was changing, and I knew the meaning had to be motivated by peaceful intentions—not revenge or patriotism, but real meaning about where we are as human beings, and where we should be going,” Riley reflects.
Though he contends he is not making a political statement in this composition, Riley notes that some of the wording accompanying Sun Rings contains messages about humanity and compassion. In what may be the most introspective of all the movements, “Prayer Central” serves as the opportunity to reflect in what Riley calls a “polyphony of prayers that goes drifting up.”
Certain sounds from the original Voyager recordings surface throughout the performance where Riley isolated what he found to be a musical phrase. However, at other times the instruments take over in melodies the space sounds only subtly suggested, and in other places the piece moves in an all-together new direction.
“I conceived the ten movements of Sun Rings to be a variety of spacescapes,” Riley says. “I pictured an imaginary audience traveling with Kronos in and around the planets, hearing the quartet and choir as they journeyed through the distant sounds of exotic atmospheres.”
“The space sounds are embedded in our sounds,” Harrington says. The end product is an 85-minute experience—a layering of different sounds and human voices.
Similarly, the visual design makes references to the original space sounds on and off. “Sometimes I have used imagery specific to the source sounds,” Williams says, “but more often what we are seeing during the performance is an abstraction based more loosely on the mood of the composition as a whole.”
Today the Voyager spacecraft are further away from Earth than any human-made object has ever been, and they climb deeper into space everyday dutifully carrying out their mission, and quietly carrying their messages from Earth. Inspired by and intermixed with the visions and spirit of Voyager, Sun Rings hopes to take both its creators and its audience to a place where we’ve never been.
Blake Marie Bullock lives in Southern California. She earned her B.A. in astrophysics from the University of California, Berkeley and an M.A. in astronomy from Wesleyan University. She writes both science journalism and fiction, and is currently working on a novel. Her fiction has appeared in VerbSap Magazine.
The visuals for the final movement of Sun Rings were inspired by The Golden Record, an information package carried into space by the Voyager spacecrafts, which includes photographs of everyday scenes from around the world—as it was in 1977.
California composer Terry Riley (b. 1935) launched what is now known as the Minimalist movement with his revolutionary classic In C in 1964. This seminal work provided a new concept in musical form based on interlocking repetitive patterns. Its impact was to change the course of 20th century music and its influence has been heard in the works of prominent composers such as Steve Reich, Philip Glass and John Adams, and in the music of rock groups such as The Who, The Soft Machine, Tangerine Dream and many others. Riley’s hypnotic, multi-layered, polymetric, brightly orchestrated Eastern flavored improvisations and compositions set the stage for the New Age movement that was to appear a decade or so later. In 1970, Riley became a disciple of the revered North Indian Raga vocalist Pandit Pran Nath and made the first of his numerous trips to India to study with the Master. He appeared frequently in concert with the legendary singer as tampura, tabla and vocal accompanist over the next 26 years, until Pran Nath’s passing in 1996. He has been co-director along with Sufi Murshid; Shabda Kahn of the Chisti Sabri India music study tours since 1993. This yearly 2-week study program in India is designed to give students a deeper insight into Pran Nath’s profound contributions to the classical music of India. Riley now regularly performs Raga as a vocalist along with his teaching seminar and recently appeared in concert with the great Zakir Hussain on tabla. In 1999 he performed Ragas at Delhi University in a special concert arranged for the music department and also performed at the Shivratri festival in Delhi the same year.
While teaching at Mills College in Oakland in the 1970s, Riley met David Harrington, founder and Artistic Director of the Kronos Quartet, and they began the long association that has so far produced 13 string quartets; a quintet, Crows Rosary; and a concerto for string quartet, The Sands, which was the Salzburg Festival’s first-ever new music commission. Cadenza on the Night Plain was selected by both Time and Newsweek as one of the 10 best classical albums of the year when it was released in the 1980s. The epic 5-quartet cycle Salome Dances for Peace was selected as the #1 Classical Album of the Year by USA Today and was nominated for a Grammy. Recently, he completed The Cusp of Magic, for string quartet and pipa, in 2005—commissioned for Kronos in honor of his 70th birthday, the work marked a 25-year adssociation for Riley and Kronos.
Carnegie Hall commissioned Riley’s innovative first orchestral piece Jade Palace for the centennial celebration in 1990/91. Leonard Slatkin and the Saint Louis Symphony premiered it there. The Rova Saxophone Quartet, Array Music, Zeitgeist, the Steven Scott Bowed Piano Ensemble, the California E.A.R. Unit, David Tanenbaum, the Assad brothers, the Abel-Steinberg-Winant Trio, Werner Bartschi and the Amati Quartet are some of the performers and ensembles who have commissioned and performed Riley’s works. Riley regularly performs solo piano concerts of his works from the past 30 years. He also appears in duo concerts with Indian sitarist Krishna Bhatt, saxophonist George Brooks and Italian bassist Stefano Scodanibbio. Riley is currently at work on a set of 24 pieces for guitar and guitar ensemble called The Book of Abbeyozzud and has recently completed a book of four pieces for piano, four hands. In 1999 he was commissioned by the Norwich Festival to compose a new work, What the River Said, which toured Britain with the UK-based group Sounds Bazaar, featuring the great drupad vocalist Amelia Cuni. Then followed a commission from the Kanagawa Foundation in Yokohama to create an evening-length work for solo piano in microtonal tuning, The Dream, which received simultaneous premieres in Rome and in Yokohama, performed by the composer. The new millennium began with a tour of a new band, Terry Riley and the All Stars, which included George Brooks, saxophones, Tracy Silverman, violin and 6-string viola, Gyan Riley, guitar and Stefano Scodanibbio, string bass with the final concert launching the first New Sounds Live concert of the 21st century at Merkin Hall. A recently completed piano concerto, Banana Humberto 2000, was performed with the Paul Dresher Ensemble in the spring of 2000, and Riley is at work on a new solo cello piece commissioned by legendary artist Bruce Connor for cellist Jean Jeanrenaud. Current commissions also include Y Bolanzero for large guitar ensemble and a new saxophone quartet for the Arte Quartet. In May of 2000, Riley made his first tour of Russia with solo piano concerts at the Sergei Kuryokin Festival in Saint Petersburg and at the Moscow Conservatory and the Dom, a privately run contemporary music club.
Willie Williams works with light and visual media to create performance environments and installations. His combination of hi-tech media and lo-tech eccentricity first received acclaim through his work with rock group U2, particularly their Zoo TV and Vertigo tours. Williams’ work with George Michael, R.E.M. and David Bowie has also been highly regarded as being both conceptually and technologically groundbreaking.
In 2006 Williams became an associate artist of London’s Southbank Centre and patron of their Light Lab, an informal initiative hosting innovative light-based art installations across the site. He also created a gallery installation for the summer of 2007 at Turnpike Gallery in Manchester. Previous installation works include a lighting installation within Canterbury Cathedral for Easter 2004, the creation of “SkyChurch,” a permanent multimedia performance space at the Experience Music Project in Seattle, and a permanent exhibit at Cleveland’s Rock & Roll Hall of Fame Museum.
In performing arts, Williams collaborated with Laurie Anderson on her current Homeland project. He has designed for the Montréal dance company La La La Human Steps and for Marianne Faithfull on her 2007 tour.
Theatre projects have included lighting and projection design for the Little Britain live tour plus lighting and video design for the musical We Will Rock You, now playing in theatres worldwide. He designed the lighting and video projection for Barbarella at Vienna’s Raimund Theater and also ‘Pam Ann’ at the Bloomsbury Theatre, London.
Williams has been honored by his peers on several occasions and was profiled in Time magazine in September 2006. His George Michael show design was selected as Best in Book in the Creative Review Yearbook 2007 and he was awarded Lighting Designer of the Year at London’s Total Production International awards in 2006 and in 2003. In 2001 he received an EDDY award in New York for excellence in entertainment design. Wired magazine ranked him as one of the “Top 25 visionaries in entertainment” in 2000.
Laurence Neff has been the lighting designer for the Kronos Quartet since 1986. He has designed many productions for Kronos, including Live Video (the group’s first fully staged concert), George Crumb’s Black Angels, Tan Dun’s Ghost Opera and Gabriela Ortiz’ Altar de Muertos. Neff, who also acts as Kronos’ Production Director, is responsible for the unique visual aspects of the quartet’s concerts, having worked with the group on more than 1,000 concerts throughout the world.
Neff has also worked with the Paul Dresher Ensemble (designing Slow Fire, Power Failure and Pioneer), George Coates Performance Works (designing RareArea, Actual Sho and Right Mind at the Geary Theater), and various other theater and dance companies including ODC San Francisco, Beach Blanket Babylon and Rinde Eckert.
Professional sound design relationships have led Grey to work with such artists and organizations as John Adams, Steve Reich, Philip Glass, Terry Riley, Boosey & Hawkes Music Publishers, Kronos Quartet and the Paul Dresher Ensemble. Recent projects include the premiere as sound designer and artistic collaborator for John Adams’ On the Transmigration of Souls, commissioned by the New York Philharmonic in 2002, in memory of the attacks on September 11, 2001. Performances have included Avery Fisher Hall and Carnegie Hall (New York City), Royal Albert Hall and Barbican Centre (London), Sydney Opera House Concert Hall (Sydney) and the Concertgebouw (Amsterdam). Also, Grey premiered the Adams opera Doctor Atomic in 2005 at the San Francisco Opera, with subsequent productions in Amsterdam, and at the Chicago Lyric Opera, The Metropolitan Opera and English National Opera. For a decade, Grey toured extensively throughout the world with Kronos Quartet. His Théâtre du Châtelet premieres have included John Adams’ El Niño in 2000 and Peter Eötvös’ Angels in America starring Barbara Hendricks in 2004. As a composer, Grey made his Carnegie Hall debut in 2003. Recent commissions for solo, ensemble and orchestra works include Kronos Quartet, Leila Josefowicz, Colorado Music Festival, Paul Dresher Ensemble, the California EARUnit, and Joan Jeanrenaud. Violin prodigy Leila Josefowicz recorded and released San Andreas Suite, for solo violin, on Warner Classics. Grey’s music can also be heard on New Albion Records. Grey was the composer-in-residence with the Phoenix Symphony during the 2007–2008, season and composed a 70-minute oratorio which premiered in 2008; a recording will be released on the Naxos label in spring 2009.
Project Advisor Don Gurnett started his engineering and science career by working on spacecraft electronics design as a student engineering employee in the University of Iowa Physics department in 1958, shortly after the launch of Explorer 1. After completing his B.S. in electrical engineering, he switched to physics, where he received his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees. He spent one year as a NASA trainee at Stanford University, and was hired as an assistant professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Iowa in 1965, with promotions to associate professor in 1968, and to professor in 1972.
In 1962 he pioneered the study of space plasma waves and radio emissions with the launch of a very-low-frequency radio receiver on the Injun III spacecraft. Since then he has flown similar instruments to most of the planets in the solar system, most notably on the Voyager 1 and 2 flights to the outer planets, the Galileo mission to Jupiter, and the Cassini mission to Saturn. He is currently working on a spacecraft-borne radar to search for sub-surface water at Mars. He is author of over 370 scientific publications, and has received numerous awards for his research. In 1998 he was elected to the National Academy of Sciences. He regularly teaches both undergraduate and graduate courses in physics and astronomy, and has supervised 50 graduate thesis projects.
Composer, educator, and author David Dvorin received a B.A. in Music Composition from the University of California, Los Angeles, and a M.F.A. in Music Composition from the California Institute of the Arts, where he studied with Morton Subotnick, Stephen L. Mosko, and Wadada Leo Smith. While attending school, he worked as a film, multi-media and television composer, and was nominated for an Emmy Award in Outstanding Achievement in a Craft: Music Composition, as an undergraduate. His scores have been featured in the Cannes Film Festival, Sundance Film Festival, Bombay Film Festival, Mill Valley Film Festival, Film Arts Festival, and Spike & Mike’s Festival of Animation, as well as multiple video games.
Dvorin’s electro-acoustic compositions have been performed at technology conferences and music festivals including the Carmel Performing Arts Festival, Big Sur Experimental Music Festival, Music in the Mountains Festival, Sound & Vision Festival, and the Alfred Loeffler New Music Symposium. In 2000, he joined the artistic board of the Nevada County Composers Cooperative, a non-profit group dedicated to presenting contemporary American music in the Sierra Foothills of California.
In addition to his musical activities, David has worked as a consultant and education specialist for numerous music software companies including Native Instruments, Emagic, and Apple Computer. His textbook, Logic Pro 8: Beyond the Basics, has been adopted by educational institutions worldwide. As an educator, David has served on faculty at Sierra College and is currently a professor of music composition and electronic music at California State University, Chico.
While Sun Rings is his first collaboration with composer Terry Riley and the Kronos Quartet, David has also made electronic music contributions to Riley’s 2005 composition, The Cusp of Magic, for Kronos and pipa player Wu Man.
“ Exploding traditional notions of classical music, Sun Rings offers an exciting new vision of where this musical genre could be headed in the 21st century. ”
- Kyle MacMillan, Denver Post
“ A mystical and intellectually demanding musical, visual, scientific, philosophical and spiritual voyage. ”
- Harold Duckett, Knoxville News Sentinel
“ Stunning visual information put together by Willie Williams, visual designer for U2 and Bowie...the result is an overwhelming multimedia epic of a show. ”
- Peter Culshaw, Daily Telegraph (UK)
“ Sun Rings emerges as a suite of 10 hauntingly powerful "spacescapes" composed to join together Dr. Gurnett's sounds with the string quartet for a distinctive weaving of live performance and recorded space emanations. ”
- Barbara Rose Shuler, The Herald (Monterey)
“ Think of Terry Riley's Sun Rings as a spaceship that faces ahead into the planets but also looks back toward its starting point on Earth. ”
- Daniel Felsenfeld, Musical America
Sun Rings, Production Credits
Performed by Kronos Quartet
Composed by Terry Riley
Willie Williams, Visual Design
Larry Neff, Lighting Design
Mark Grey, Sound Design
David Dvorin, Recorded Sound Transformation
Mark Logue, Associate Video Director
Don Gurnett, Project Advisor
Janet Cowperthwaite, Producer
Laird Rodet, Project Development
Sidney Chen, Artistic Administrator/Chorus Liaison
Kronos Performing Arts Association, Production Management
Sounds sourced courtesy of Dr. Donald A. Gurnett, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa
Voice “One Earth, One People, One Love”: Alice Walker
Video sequences created at Punk Films, London, by Willie Williams, Mark Logue and Marina Fiorato; additional editing by Tim Zgraggen, San Francisco
Imagery sourced courtesy of NASA; Jet Propulsion Laboratory; Jon Lomberg; Dr. Donald A. Gurnett; Punk Films, London; Willie Williams; Dave D. Sentman and Daniel L. Osborne of the Geophysical Institute University of Alaska; Alan Title, Lockheed (TRACE is a NASA Goddard Small Explored Mission (SMEX); the TRACE science instrument was developed by the Stanford-Lockheed Institute for Space Research); David Keleel; US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; US Fish & Wildlife Service
Stage set construction: John Lobel, Light & Sound Design
Special thanks for support and assistance to Don Gurnett, Bert Ulrich, Jurrie J. van der Woude, Mark Logue, Wally Chappell, Kathy Kurth, Van Jarvis, Stage Electrics/London, Judy Hurtig, Chuck Swanson, Jon Lomberg, Daniel Osborne, Dave Sentman and Alan Title.
Terry Riley extends special thanks to Kronos, Janet Cowperthwaite, Don Gurnett, Mark Grey, David Dvorin, Bert Ulrich, Willie Williams, Larry Neff, Alice Walker and Ann Riley.
Sun Rings was commissioned for the Kronos Quartet by the NASA Art Program, the National Endowment for the Arts, The Rockefeller Foundation’s Multi-Arts Production Fund, Hancher Auditorium/University of Iowa, Society for the Performing Arts, Eclectic Orange Festival/Philharmonic Society of Orange County, SFJAZZ, Barbican, London, U.K., University of Texas Performing Arts Center, Austin (with the support of the Topfer Endowment for Performing Arts), and the Brooklyn Academy of Music. Additional contributions from Stephen K. Cassidy, Margaret Lyon, Greg G. Minshall, and David A. and Evelyne T. Lennette made this work possible.
|10-9-04||Brooklyn, New York||Howard Gilman Opera House||BAM Next Wave Festival|
|10-8-04||Brooklyn, New York||Howard Gilman Opera House||BAM Next Wave Festival|
|10-6-04||Brooklyn, New York||Howard Gilman Opera House||BAM Next Wave Festival|
|5-8-04||Charleston, West Virginia||Maier Foundation Performance Hall||Clay Center for the Arts|
|4-3-04||Urbana, Iillinois||Tryon Festival Theatre, University of Illinois||Krannert Center|
|3-28-04||Scottsdale, Arizona||Scottsdale Center for the Arts||Scottsdale Center for the Arts|
|3-26-04||Tuscon, Arizona||Centennial Hall, University of Arizona||UA Presents|
|3-7-04||Boston, Massachusetts||Emerson Majestic Hall||World Music, CRASHArts|
|1-10-04||Calgary, Canada||Southern Alberta Jubilee Auditorium||High Performance Rodeo/One Yellow Rabbit|
|11-20-03||West Lafayette, Indiana||Loeb Playhouse||Purdue University|
Kronos tours often! View all of our venues and dates.